Stirs good comprehensibility of mushrooms the considerable content in them of the cellulose impregnated with chitin. Chitin not only is not digested in a digestive tract of the person, but also complicates access to digestive juice and the digested substances. Comprehensibility of mushrooms will worsen, in particular, as well that mushroom proteins generally belong to difficult soluble substances.
Disputes of mouldy mushrooms very small and easy therefore they easily can extend by air, on water, on pads of insects. Drops of a rain can transfer also large fungal spores. In distribution of many dispute also animals participate. Especially often mushrooms which fruit bodies are located underground, for example, a truffle use them. Extend disputes of mushrooms and insects. Then mushrooms often have a specific smell and mucous allocations.
What nutritional value of edible fungi? First of all, it is defined by a chemical composition of mushrooms. It is necessary to tell that to contain fresh-gathered mushrooms in a significant amount, as well as vegetables, water. However at culinary processing (frying, suppression and especially when drying the amount of water in mushrooms significantly decreases.
Parasitic fungi lead a parasitic life. They settle on live organisms and eat at their expense. Paprimer, an ergot, parasitizes on cereals, (parasitizing on kolovratka), a phytophthora (has no narrow specialty), and also rzhavchinny and golovnevy mushrooms. There are mushrooms which parasitize on fishes.
Cages of mushrooms are covered with a firm cover - a cellular wall which consists of polysaccharides for 80-90% (at the majority it is chitin). Kernels can be one or several. From organellas of a mushroom cage it is necessary to call mitochondrions, lysosomes, vacuoles containing stocks of nutritious centuries. The role spare in-va carries out a glycogen. Mushrooms have no starch. Cages do not contain plastids and a chlorophyll therefore mushrooms cannot fotosintezirovat.
Structure of a shlyapochny mushroom. The majority of edible fungi (except truffles, strochok and a morel has a fruit fruit body which is formed by a leg and a hat. That in everyday life call mushrooms in essence is their fruit bodies. A mycelium (the body of everyone a mushroom is in the soil. It represents the thin branching white threads. Each cage of a mycelium at shlyapochny mushrooms in most cases contains two kernels. Plastid in cages of mushrooms does not happen.
Mushroom mukor. If to put bread for some days in a warm damp place, on it there can be a white fluffy raid which darkens after a while. It is a mold mushroom-saprofit a mukor. He often settles also on fruit, vegetables, on horse manure.
Gather mushrooms in the summer, put on dark paper of a hat of lamellar and tubular mushrooms (the lower party). In a day carefully remove hats from paper, you will see on it a peculiar drawing which is formed by the getting enough sleep disputes.
In mushrooms there are a lot of mineral substances, including such necessary, as phosphorus. By amount of mineral substances mushrooms are similar to fruit, and the considerable content of phosphorus approaches them to several animal species of products, for example to fish. Mushrooms in general have a peculiar chemical composition in comparison with other plants.
The mycelium of a mukor is presented only one strongly expanded and branched cage with a set of kernels in cytoplasm. This mushroom as mycelium scraps, and disputes breeds. Some threads of a mycelium rise up, turning in sporangiyenosets, and extend on the ends. In these black expansions (sporangium) similar to heads, disputes are formed.
Thus, the chemical composition of edible fungi shows that they contain enough nutrients, in any case not less than in vegetables, and even it is more than some nutrients in mushrooms.
When collecting it is desirable to handle a mycelium most carefully. It is not necessary to dig out mushrooms of the soil as in this case the mycelium is damaged. It is necessary to unscrew the easy, careful movements fruit a tep from the soil. In this case mycelium threads are almost not damaged.